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Problems faced globally with regards to contamination of drinking water and the various sources of contamination

It is found that 70 percent of the freshwater sources in the country were found to be polluted and India ranks 120 out of 122 countries in terms of poor water quality.
Major sources of drinking water contamination are pollution from landfills, septic tanks, leaky underground gas tanks, and the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. One of the reasons for this situation is the absence of water treatment capacities. While consuming water, most people complain about the contamination level which can result from pipe bursts, oil spills, presence of microorganisms or traces of other chemicals.
The Safe Drinking Water Act defines the term "contaminant" as meaning any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water.

Water contamination is caused by three primary sources:

Rainwater: It is usually safe to drink, but rainwater that gets seeped into the soil, manages to reach everywhere. If it happens to drip on waste, then it turns to wastewater instead of pure rainwater that becomes polluted.

Surface water: Storm water with acid levels and other air contaminants can pollute surface water sources like rivers, streams and lakes. Another way of surface water contamination is when pollutants and waste water from agriculture and industries is disposed of into water bodies.

Groundwater: Water from underground aquifers is usually safe to drink, but over the past few years contamination has increased. Groundwater may be contaminated by naturally occurring elements like arsenic, selenium or boron. Geology and soil makeup also affect water quality.

There are a number of artificial ways in which water is polluted. Some examples of these are improper disposal of chemicals, animal wastes, pesticides, human wastes, wastes injected deep underground etc. Likewise, drinking water that is not properly treated or disinfected, or that travels through an improperly maintained distribution system, also may pose a health risk.

The Different Categories of Water Contaminants

Water contaminants fall into four basic categories:

Aesthetic: This is a type of water contaminant that is characterized by foul tastes and odours which come from natural and unnatural sources. Examples of such contaminants are sediments, dirt, sand or particulates or minerals that affect the taste of drinking water. This can also affect the smooth flow of drinking water as these contaminants can clog pipes too.
Biological: Pathogens that have serious or deadly effects on human health, including bacteria (such as E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Legionella), cysts and parasites (such as Giardia, Cryptosporidium and tapeworms), and viruses (such as hepatitis A and poliovirus).
Chemical: Volatile organic compounds, chlorine, chloramines, pesticides, herbicides and inorganic chemicals such as nitrates.
Dissolved solids: Minerals (such as calcium and magnesium) and heavy metals (such as iron, manganese, lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, aluminum, copper, radon and barium).
The above-mentioned water contaminants are precisely why there should be an absolute need for testing of drinking water in various industries.

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Or on our email: contact@atlaslab.in
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