Edible Oil Analysis


EDIBLE OIL | VEGETABLE OIL | COOKING OIL | REFINED OIL | FOOD OIL | VEGETABLE FATS & OILS | FATTY ACIDS | MUFA | PUFA | OMEGA 3 | OMEGA 6 | OMEGA 9

ATLAS OIL TESTING LABORATORY specializes in testing and analysis of all different types of Oils and Fats for all the quality parameters to report if the said oil is conforming to the specification.

The various tests performed in our laboratory catering to Oils & Fats are:

TESTS METHOD
Acetyl Value IS/AOCS/ISO
Acid Value IS/AOCS/ISO
Acetone Insoluble Matter IS/AOCS/ISO
Adultration with other Oils IS/AOCS
Aldehyde Profile GC
Appearance Visual
Alcohols GC
Aliphatic Alcohols GC
Ash IS/AOCS/ISO
Bellier Turbidity Temperature (B.T.T) IS/AOCS
Bleaching Test Gardner Smith 
Break Test IS/AOCS/ISO
Cloud Point IS/AOCS/ISO
Cold Test IS/AOCS/ISO
Color, Lovibond IS/AOCS/ISO
Colour, Bleach Gardner Smith 
Congeal Point IS/AOCS/ISO
Esters GC
Fatty Acid Composition GC
Fatty Alcohol Profile GC
Flash Point IS/AOCS/ISO
Free Fatty Acids IS/AOCS/ISO
Gums AOCS
Halphen Test IS/AOCS/ISO
Hexane Residues GC
Hydroxyl Value IS/AOCS/ISO
Insoluble Impurities IS/AOCS/ISO
Iodine Value (Wij’s) IS/AOCS/ISO
Melting Point – Capillary – Slip - Wiley IS/AOCS/ISO
Moisture & Volatile Matter IS/AOCS/ISO
Mono Saturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) GC
Nutritional Value – Facts of Oils / Fats ASTM
Odour & Smell Organoleptic
Omega - 3 GC
Omega – 6 GC
Omega – 9 GC
Peroxide Value IS/AOCS/ISO
Phosphorous IS/AOCS/ISO
Poly Saturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) GC
Rancidity (Kries Test), B.S. 
Refractive Index IS/AOCS/ISO
Refining Loss AOCS
Saponification Value IS/AOCS/ISO
Saponifiable Matter IS/AOCS/ISO
Saturated Fatty Acids GC
Smoke Point IS/AOCS/ISO
Soap Content FOSFA
Specific Gravity IS/AOCS/ISO
Titer IS/AOCS/ISO
Trans Fatty Acids GC
Unsaponifiable matter IS/AOCS/ISO
Un-Saturated Fatty Acids GC
Wax AOCS

Due to our vast knowledge and experience in the Oil & Fats area, we have the capacity to test and analyse all the various categories of Oils detailed as under :

Vegetable oil is a blend of oils from seeds and plants.
Any oil that comes from plants and seeds is known as vegetable oil. Oils may or may not be edible.

Oils are categorised mainly as under :

MAJOR OILS

These Oils are Major Oils which signifies that they account for the main  production and consumption worldwide.

Coconut Oil
Corn Oil
Cottonseed Oil
Palm Oil
RBD Palm olein
Peanut Oil
Olive Oil
Rapeseed Oil
Sesame Oil
Sunflower Oil
Safflower Oil
Soybean Oil
Mustard Oil
Maize Oil

NUT OILS

Nut Oils are mainly used in cooking due to their flavour.

Almond Oil
Cashew Oil
Hazelnut Oil
Macadamia Oil
Mongongo nut Oil
Pecan Oil
Pine nut Oil
Pistachio Oil
Walnut Oil

OILS FROM MELON AND GOURD SEEDS

Watermelon seed Oil
Pumpkin seed Oil
Bottle gourd Oil
Buffalo gourd Oil

FOOD SUPPLEMENTS

Some oils are used as food supplements used for their nutrient content or medical effect.

Acai Oil
Blackcurrant seed Oil
Grape seed Oil
Borage seed Oil
Evening Primrose Oil

OTHER EDIBLE OILS

Carob pod Oil
Amaranth oil
Apricot oil
Apple seed oil
Argan oil
Artichoke oil
Avaocado oil
Babassu oil
Ben oil
 Borneo tallow nut oil
Cape chestnut oil
Cassia oil
Cocoa butter
Cocoa oil
Cocklebur oil
Cochune oil
Coriander seed oil
Dika oil
False flax oil
Flax seed oil
Grapeseed oil
Hemp oil
Kapok seed oil
Kenaf seed oil
Lallemantia oil
Marula oil
Meadowfoam seed oil
Mustard Oil
Nutmeg butter
Okra seed oil
Papaya oil
Perilla seed oil
Pequi oil
Pine nut oil
Poppyseed oil
Prune kernel oil
Quinoa oil
Ramtil oil
Rice bran oil
Royle oil
Sacha Inchi oil
Tea seed oil (Camellia oil)
Thistle oil
Tigernut oil
Tomato seed oil
Wheat germ oil

OILS USED FOR BIOFUEL / BIODIESEL

Many oils are used only for Biofuel while some are used of Biofuel in addition to having other uses. Biofuels have started making inroads as Diesel Fuels which are exclusively petroleum based. Hence some oils based and evaluaed for its use as biofuel with regards to :

Suitability as a fuel, based on ignition temperature, flash point, rate of combustion, flammability, calorific value, energy value, viscosity, lubricity and other factors which include ease and effort of growth and harvest of crop or seeds, yeild of crop, cost of processing and harvesting.

OILS ALSO USED AS BIOFUEL / BIODIESEL

These Oils are chiefly used for other uses but due to research they have been considered for use as biofuel.

Castor oil
Coconut oil
Corn oil
Cottonseed oil
False flax oil
Hemp oil
Maize Oil
Mustard oil
Palm oil
Peanut oil
Radish oil
Rapeseed oil
Ramtil oil
Rice bran oil
Safflower oil
Salicornia oil
Soybean oil
Sunflower oil
Tigernut oil
Tung oil

INEDIBLE OILS USED ONLY OR CHIEFLY AS BIOFUEL / BIODIESEL

These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated mainly for production of Biofuels / Biodeisel

Algae oil
Capaiba oil
Honge oil
Jathropa oil
Jojoba oil
Milk bush oil
Petroleum nut oil

DRYING OILS

Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry up at normal or room temperature to a dry or hard finish. These oils are used in paint industry, varnishing, polishing, coating and wood finishing.

Dammar oil
Linseed oil
Poppyseed oil
Stillingia oil
Tung oil
Vernonia oil

Also in addition to the above oils, Walnut oil, Sunflower Oil and Safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils.

CITRUS OILS

Some citrus plants are pressed to extract citrus oils, also some seeds of citrus give usable oils.

Grapefruit seed oil
Lemon oil
Orange oil

OTHER OILS

Many pressed vegetable oils are either not edible, or not used as edible oil.

Amur cork tree fruit oil
Balanos oil
Bladderpod oi
Brucea javanica
Burdock
Candlenut
Carrot seed
Castor
Chaulmoogra
Crambe
Cuphea
Illipe butter
Jojoba
Karanjia oil
Mango oil
Mowrah butter
Neem
Ojon
Rose hip seed
Rubber seed
Sea buckthorn
Shea butter
Snowball seed oil
Tall oil
Tamanu
Tonka bean

Palm oil is extracted from the mature fresh fruit bunches of oil palm plantations. Various edible, non-edible and industrial grades are :

Palm oil
Crude Palm Oil     CPO
Palm Kernal oil     PKO
Crude Palm Kernal Oil    CPKO
Palm Kernal Fatty Acid Distillate  PKFAD
Palm Acid Oil
RBD Palm Olein         RBDPO
RBD Palm Oil
Crude Palmolein
Distilled Palm Fatty Acid
Crude Palm Stearin   CPS

FATTY ACIDS

Fatty acids are merely carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon chains. The hydrocarbon chain length may vary from 10-30 carbons (most usual is 12-18).

Common Name

Carbon
Atoms

Double
Bonds

Scientific Name

 Butyric acid 4 0  butanoic acid
 Caproic Acid 6 0  hexanoic acid
 Caprylic Acid 8 0  octanoic acid
 Capric Acid 10 0  decanoic acid
 Lauric Acid 12 0  dodecanoic acid
 Myristic Acid 14 0  tetradecanoic acid
 Palmitic Acid 16 0  hexadecanoic acid
 Palmitoleic Acid 16 1  9-hexadecenoic acid
 Stearic Acid 18 0  octadecanoic acid
 Oleic Acid 18 1  9-octadecenoic acid
 Ricinoleic acid 18 1  12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid
 Vaccenic Acid 18 1  11-octadecenoic acid
 Linoleic Acid 18 2  9,12-octadecadienoic acid
 Alpha-Linolenic Acid  (ALA) 18 3  9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
 Gamma-Linolenic Acid  (GLA) 18 3  6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid
 Arachidic Acid 20 0  eicosanoic acid
 Gadoleic Acid 20 1  9-eicosenoic acid
 Arachidonic Acid (AA) 20 4  5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid
 EPA 20 5  5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid
 Behenic acid 22 0  docosanoic acid
 Erucic acid 22 1  13-docosenoic acid
 DHA 22 6  4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid
 Lignoceric acid 24 0  tetracosanoic acid

Fatty can be subdivided into well-defined families:

SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

Among straight-chain fatty acids, the simplest are referred to as Saturated fatty acids. Which means that there are no doubel bonds beetween carbon atoms so that the fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen. . Saturated fat is less likely to spoil than unsaturated fat and more stable during cooking.

Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Since our body manufactures its own saturated fat we don't need to include any in our diet. It is found mainly in animal foods and dairy products (exceptions: palm oil, coconut oil). Saturated fats increase total cholesterol, LDL-C (bad) and triglycerides. Below, is found a list of the most common saturated fatty acids.

Systematic name

Trivial name

Shorthand designation

Molecular wt.

Melting point (°C)

butanoic butyric 4:0 88.1 -7.9
pentanoic valeric 5:0    
hexanoic caproic 6:0 116.1 -3.4
octanoic caprylic 8:0 144.2 16.7
nonanoic pelargonic 9:0 158.2 12.5
decanoic capric 10:0 172.3 31.6
dodecanoic lauric 12:0 200.3 44.2
tetradecanoic myristic 14:0 228.4 53.9
hexadecanoic palmitic 16:0 256.4 63.1
heptadecanoic margaric (daturic) 17:0 270.4 61.3
octadecanoic stearic 18:0 284.4 69.6
eicosanoic arachidic 20:0 312.5 75.3
docosanoic behenic 22:0 340.5 79.9
tetracosanoic lignoceric 24:0 368.6 84.2
hexacosanoic cerotic 26:0 396.7 88
heptacosanoic carboceric 27:0 410.7  
octacosanoic montanic 28:0 424.8  
triacontanoic melissic 30:0 452.9  
dotriacontanoic lacceroic 32:0 481  
tritriacontanoic ceromelissic (psyllic) 33:0 495  
tetratriacontanoic geddic 34:0 509.1  
pentatriacontanoic ceroplastic 35:0 523.1  

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

Unsaturated fatty acids are those in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.

Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. These are mainly plant fats such as corn, safflower, olive, walnut, canola and others. These fats can help clean the blood vessels however; too much of some of these fats can lead to heart disease.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids:

COMMON NAME DESIGNATION
Myristoleic acid 14:1
Palmitoleic acid 16:1
Sapienic acid 16:1
Oleic acid 18:1
Linoleic acid 18:2
α-Linolenic acid 18:3
Arachidonic acid 20:4
Eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5
Erucic acid 22:1
Docosahexaenoic acid 22:6

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS are further bifurcated as MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (MUFA) and POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFA) :

MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (MUFA) are those that contain one double bond.

Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) is found in animal products & vegetables.Monounsaturated fat is believed to lower total cholesterol with no change or slight increase in HDL-C. It is cardio-protective, lowers blood glucose and triglycerides in type II diabetes. It may also offer protection against certain cancers, like breast cancer and colon cancer. The major fatty acid composition of MUFA is oleic acid.

Oils high in monounsaturated are best for cooking (frying). For example, groundnut, mustard, canola, rapeseed, olive oil. They have high oxidation thresholds: meaning, they remain stable at higher temperatures and are not easily transformed into hydrogenated or saturated fats. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are liquid at room temperature but start to solidify on refrigeration.

Common monounsaturated fatty acids are :

COMMON NAME DESIGNATION
Palmitoleic acid 16:1
cis-vaccenic acid 18:1
Oleic acid 18:1

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFA) are those that contain more than one double bond.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are liquid at room temperature and in the refrigerator. PUFA are not manufactured by our body & must be obtained in our diet and are hence called essential fatty acids.

These healthy fats include the family of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

Common polyunsaturated fatty acids are :

COMMON NAME DESIGNATION
Linoleic acid 18:2
Gamma-linolenic acid 18:3
Alpha-linolenic acid 18:3
Arachidonic acid 20:4
Eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5
Docosahexaenoic acid 22:6

Omega-3
Omega -3 Fatty Acids

n−3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the n-3 position; that is, the third bond from the methyl end of the fatty acid.

Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Since our body manufactures its own saturated fat we don't need to include any in our diet. It is found mainly in animal foods and dairy products (exceptions: palm oil, coconut oil). Saturated fats increase total cholesterol, LDL-C (bad) and triglycerides. Below, is found a list of the most common saturated fatty acids.

COMMON NAME DESIGNATION
Hexadecatrienoic acid 16:3
Alpha-linolenic acid 18:3
Stearidonic acid 18:4
Eicosatrienoic acid 20:3
Eicosatetrenoic acid 20:4
Eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5
Docosapentaenoic acid 22:5
Docosahexaenoic acid 22:6
Tetracosapentaenoic acid 24:5
Tetracosahexaenoic acid 24:5

Omega-6
Omega -6 Fatty Acids

n−6 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−6 fatty acids or omega-6 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the n-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the end opposite the carboxyl group

COMMON NAME DESIGNATION
Linoleic acid 18:2
Gamma-linolenic acid 18:3
Eicosadienoic acid 20:2
Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid 20:3
Arachidonic acid 20:4
Docosadienoic acid 22:2
Adrenic acid 22:4
Docosapentaenoic acid 22:5

Omega-9
Omega-9 Fatty Acids

n−9 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−9 fatty acids or omega-9 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated fatty acids which have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the n-9 position; that is, the ninth bond from the end of the fatty acid.

COMMON NAME DESIGNATION
Oleic acid 18:1
Eicosenoic acid 20:1
Mead acid 20:3
Erucic acid 22:1
Nervonic acid 24:1

Trans Fatty Acid

Trans Fats are the most harmful of the dietary fats. They are more serious than saturated fats and can raise total cholesterol and LDL-C ("bad cholesterol") and lower HDL-C ("good cholesterol"). Eliminating trans fats from the diet is very important to prevent Cardiovascular Disease.

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is synthesized in the body and hence is not essential in the diet. Dietary cholesterol raises plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C levels. Foods high in saturated fat are also sources of dietary cholesterol and hence consumption of these foods should be moderated.